From 1960 onwards it was dreadful — 1960, the year of the massacre at Sharpeville, 69 people shot dead, mostly in their back. The ANC — African National Congress — banned completely, the leaders banned, the newspapers banned, the Pan-Africanist Congress banned. The Communist Party had been banned for ten years already. Everything driven underground, impossible state of emergency. And then things became much, much grimmer. An attempt was made in 1961 by Nelson Mandela to call for a national convention to negotiate a new constitution for South Africa. He came from the underground to do it. It was just ignored completely. The government, to show its force, paraded with armored cars and airplanes, like to say, “We are not going to change. White supremacy forever in South Africa. We will have a place for some traditional black leaders in the rural areas. They can do things in their own way. They must never dream of having a vote and being equal with the rest of us.” It was a very grim period. The ANC then decided, “We’ve said, ‘Nonviolence, nonviolence, nonviolence’ forever. Where has it got us? Things are worse now than they were even 40 years ago.” And the first bombs went off. Now Nelson Mandela is the Commander-in-Chief of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the ANC — “Spear of the Nation.” And then became the repression, the 90-Day Law, the Sabotage Act, the law being turned into an instrument of total repression, detention without trial.