Antonio Villaraigosa: I don’t think this is a permanent state, by any stretch.  I’m a student of history and know that we go through ebbs and flows.  I think, obviously, the obscene amount of money involved in elections create higher stakes.  Obviously the obscene amount of money that is spent on elections today, special interests exacerbate the conflicts.  I think the parties    the country’s so evenly divided — raise the stakes.  I think primaries also sometimes lead to people getting elected who are just on the extremes, don’t feel like they need to compromise.  I think redistricting and the focus on maintaining party power contributes to that.  I think  we are at a time where there is a lack of civility, not just in politics, but across the board.  So there are a number of reasons for it, and analysts and all of that probably provide more insights.  I would say, from my vantage point, I think it is essential that we — in both parties — promote a more civil discourse, recognize and value compromise and problem solving.  My criticism of legislators, both state and local and particularly federal, is that they are oftentimes so focused on the debate, and on the idea, and not on results and getting things done.   I think mayors and governors — but particularly mayors — have to pull up their sleeves and get things done.  I like to say there is not a Democrat or Republican way to make people safe or pick up the trash.  You’ve just got to do it.  And working through these things, I think, should be something that we all put a higher value on.