Right after the Marion Coakley case, there was another case involving an individual named Castro in the Bronx.  After we did this seminar at Cardozo Law School, one of the people from the public defender’s office says, “You guys are very interested in this. Could you do the admissibility hearing? The prosecution wants to prove that blood on Mr. Castro’s watch is not his blood, but is actually the blood from the murder victim.” So we were initially very suspicious, based on our early dealings with Lifecodes, because we could see that they hadn’t published peer-reviewed articles, and they hadn’t done some of the basic validation research that you would expect for this technology transfer. So we got the evidence in this case, and we never contested in the Castro case that the exclusion… that the blood on the watch wasn’t from Castro. Because the way these DNA tests work, you would see these bands. They had what they called a RFLP testing at that time, that had to do with bands going down in a gel and you would see it. The bands were clearly not aligned, then it was an exclusion, and there was no dispute about the exclusion.  So we didn’t dispute that. But when they said, “Well, these bands that don’t look the same are really the same, and then we can make an inference about the statistical significance of that by looking at population genetic evidence.” Well, there was some very serious scientific problems with that. So we went to these Cold Spring Harbor seminars, and we started showing what they called the auto rads and some of the data to the scientists there. And we ran into this Dr. Eric Lander, who’s quite an extraordinary figure, very brilliant man. He was looking at it, and he immediately realized, “Oh my God, here we are in the genetics community, and we all believe that this technology transfer is going to work, because it is such a robust technology, and of course DNA testing is going to work.”  But then, he saw how this was being misapplied, and they had not done the right validation studies to prove that the things matched, and they hadn’t done the population genetics work adequately to give us a real statement about what the significance of it was within certain populations.