Francis Collins: Knowing the human genome has already been changing individual lives, maybe particularly in the case of cancer. Cancer is a disease of the genome. It happens because of misspellings in that instruction book, some of them inherited, many of them acquired in a particular cell during life, maybe because of some toxic exposure, like a cigarette smoker. Maybe just because it’s really hard to copy your DNA and get it right every time. But if you want to understand cancer in the individual, you wanna know what happened. What were the particular glitches that occurred in that instruction book, and how could you use that to design a treatment for that individual that would not be the one-size-fits-all chemotherapy, which has saved many lives but is also very toxic and has failed in far too many circumstances, and change that into a truly rational approach that’s based upon that individual’s specific situation. That’s where we are headed, and I can tell you lots of amazing stories of people for whom that has been life-saving and who are not just living with cancer. They’re cured.