Francis Collins: Lung cancer. Most people think of, “Oh, boy. If you had to have a cancer, don’t have that one,” and many people assume that’s mostly because of cigarettes, and a lot of it is, but there are lots of people who get lung cancer who have never smoked. Turns out, now that we have all of these genome sequences and genome tools, we’ve discovered that some fraction of them actually have a rearrangement of their DNA that brings together two genes that used to be a long way away and puts them together in a diabolical mix that produces a protein that makes cells grow when they should stop growing, and they keep on growing, and they spread, and that’s what cancer’s about. Knowing that led to the development of a targeted drug therapy with relatively few side effects, because you and I don’t have that abnormal protein. Only people with cancer do. The drug goes to that target, and it knocks it out, and there are people walking around today taking care of their grandkids or back at work who, a few years ago, you would have said, “There is no chance that person is gonna live more than a year.”