Frederick Sanger: I managed to get into the biochemistry lab, and the person I worked with was Albert Nyberg. He was my Ph.D. advisor, and of course, when you first start doing research, you’re pretty helpless. I mean you don’t think of the project yourself. So, I did the projects which he showed me and which were fairly mundane sort of subjects, metabolism, and I think he taught me a lot, because he really taught me how to do research. I don’t think we made very important discoveries at that stage, but he did show me how to do research. I mean it’s quite different from working at school, when you, you know, have got to work out your own subjects and you’re working on one thing, and you don’t know what’s going to be the result. I mean, in school, you just put your things together and you know what’s going to happen. If it doesn’t happen, you’ve made a mistake. But if you’re doing research, then if it doesn’t happen, that’s sometimes just as important as if it had worked, and I think the sort of philosophy of research is important, and I think he did teach me that very well, really, by his example.