James Watson: Conventional wisdom is, more or less, “Continue doing what you’re doing now.” I think that’s why, if you look at large corporations, it’s so hard for them to change. At least in the culture of the United States, innovation so often comes from something not part of a big organization, where by being small, and just being separate from the ordinary wisdom, you get something done. So that’s what’s been the real health of the American academic system. By passing money out to so many different people, to be free to do what they want, rather than having this sort of grand plan in which the people like myself make the plans. That tends to stifle innovation.