Louis Ignarro: The one thing about research being very exciting is the fact that you really don’t know what to expect.  So you have to be very creative.  You have to be able to ask the right questions and then answer them in a timely manner.  And then, once you get answers back, you need to know what direction you’re going to go next.  It sounds very exciting, but it can be very frustrating because, for example, in the laboratory when you’re conducting experiments, not all experiments work, or they don’t work the way you thought they were going to work.  So now what do you do?  Research carries with it a great deal of frustration.  There’s no instant gratification in research.  You do an experiment, okay, fine.  Now you’re taking it this direction, you’re taking it in that direction.  You may not know if your project has been successful, or if you’ve made an important finding, for a year or two or three years.  So that’s what I mean by “no instant gratification” in most aspects.  Sometimes there have been experiments where there was that instant gratification.  But at the beginning, it’s very frustrating.  It takes many, many hours.  Doing original research in a laboratory does not mean that you go in at 8:00 in the morning and you go home at 5:00 in the afternoon and you take weekends off.  Sorry.  That’s not the way it works.  You may be going at 6:00 in the morning.  You may be staying until midnight.  I’ve always worked on weekends, at least the first 20 years of my career.  And depending on the experiment, sometimes you have to stay awake for 24 to 48 hours, depending upon what you’re doing to monitor the experiments.