Shinya Yamanaka: It may be surprising, but I was a surgeon, like 20 years ago.  And I found I was terrible in the operating room.  So I thought, “Well, I won’t help people by doing this!” That’s why I decided to move to basic science, and I hope it’s working. So, for the last — let me see — for the last 12 years I have been working on embryonic stem cells, ES cells.  And I think probably… so please raise your hand if you know about ES cells.  Oh, not all. Okay.  Embryonic stem cells are stem cells which scientists generated from fertilized eggs. It was first derived from the mouse embryo in 1981, so 27 years ago.  ES cells have two properties, very important properties.  The first one: you can increase — you can culture — ES cells as much as you want, almost forever.  The second, very important point of ES cells is that you can induce, you can make any types of cells from ES cells, including cardiac cells, neural cells, blood cells, and also germ cells. That means you can prepare any cells, in any quantity, any time.  Because of that, mouse embryonic stem cells — ES cells — gave rise to a new technology called “knockout mouse” technology, which is a super technology in understanding the gene function. And as you may know, knockout mouse technology was awarded the Nobel Prize last year.  Then in 1998, Dr. James Thomson developed ES cells from human blastocysts. That opened up a completely new way in regenerative medicine.