Shinya Yamanaka: I really had hard times, so I was about to quit doing science. I was about to go back to clinics, but again, I was lucky to find another position, in Nara.  Nara is very close to Osaka. It’s only one hour by car.  There’s another university in Nara, and I was lucky enough to find a position as an associate professor over there. The funding was much better, and the scientific atmosphere was much better over there. That means there are many, many good scientists in that university in Nara.  So  without that promotion, I probably would have quit my scientific career.