Venki Ramakrishnan: I think it was Thomas Edison who said, “Science is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.”  I think that’s probably true, but you couldn’t make the breakthrough without that one percent.  I think creativity — I see it as simply keeping an open mind and not closing yourself off to ideas and possibilities.  If you see a weird result, just think about it.  Don’t just sort of dismiss it as, “Oh, that’s a mistake,” because it actually might be telling you something interesting.  Or if somebody is working on some other problem or some unrelated thing, take an interest.  Bbecause sometimes what he or she is doing might actually be something that might give you that little magic bullet that you were looking for.  So I think creativity simply means being really open to new ideas and new possibilities and then somehow your brain puts it together.  And it doesn’t do it necessarily in a conscious way.