Venki Ramakrishnan: It’s right at the crossroads of biology.  In fact, the ribosome is older than DNA or proteins.  It’s the molecule that produces proteins, and it goes back to a world where probably there was no DNA, and RNA was the genetic material.  It’s called the RNA World Hypothesis.  We can talk about that in a second.  But I knew it was important.  I also felt that the technology had changed to make certain kinds of experiments possible with crystallography, which used synchrotrons, and the fact that you can choose the wavelength of x-rays very precisely to get a signal from certain special atoms that you’ve put into the structure.  So I knew that there was a breakthrough possible.  I wasn’t absolutely sure, and so I took a 40-percent pay cut to move from the U.S. to England because I didn’t know how long it would take.  I didn’t know how long it would take to get crystals that were good enough or how long it would take to actually solve the structure.  Because, as I said, a group had been working on a different crystal form of a different part of the ribosome for almost 15 years and there hadn’t been any real breakthroughs in terms of actual structures.  So I thought, “Maybe there are some real problems that I may come across, and I don’t know how long it will take.”