I had one patient with chronic renal failure that was in 1943, during the war. And, I dialyzed one-half liter of blood, and had it run through that artificial kidney and gave it back to her. And then waited two days to see if anything terrible would happen. Nothing happened. So I then took a little more blood, and so on. By that way, at that time, if either an institutional review committee for research on human patients — or the FDA — had been breathing down my neck, the artificial kidney would never have been made. Never.